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A month by month guide to East Africa’s most comfortable high end lodges and camps giving you the best opportunity to witness the migration
(For wildebeest location updates see below)
The endless plains of East Africa are the setting for the world’s greatest wildlife spectacle – the 1.5+ million animal ungulate (wildebeest) migration. From the vast Serengeti plains to the champagne colored hills of Kenya’s Masai Mara over 1.4 million wildebeest and 200,000 zebra and gazelle, migrate in a clockwise fashion over 1,800 miles each year in search of rain ripened grass.
Tanzania’s 5,700 square mile Serengeti National Park makes up 97% of the ecosystem whilst Kenya’s Masai Mara, the northern boundary of the Serengeti, makes up 3% of the ecosystem. The Loliondo private community area borders the Serengeti in the east and the Grumeti Game Reserve borders the Serengeti in the west. The ecosystem can be divided into three areas: the southern grass plains, the Western Corridor and the northern Serengeti / Mara. The southern grass plains have endless, almost treeless, wide-open plains; the Western Corridor has rock kopjes and the Grumeti River, and the northern Serengeti / Mara is largely open woodland and rolling hills.
Many people believe that they can visit any part of the Serengeti, or Mara, and have great wildlife viewing regardless of the time of year (and lodges and camps do little to dispel this belief as they would love year round clients rather than to be busy for only 2 or 3 months of each year when the wildebeest are “in town”). Over the past 20 years I have spent many days looking across the Serengeti’s vast grass plains spying little more than a solitary antelope or journey of giraffe. Even when I put myself where the migration should be, they were often not there. Guides would talk about how the migration had not yet arrived due to rain showers in a nearby region or how the megaherd “was just here a week ago”. There are typical movement patterns but they can, and do, vary month by month, year by year, as the herds follow the rains, and the new grass. The times that I have found myself in the middle of the wildebeest migration it has been simply amazing. I find myself smiling at memories of the sheer spectacle. The endless mooing of more than a million wildebeest can drive you mad… and when the herds move on the silence is shocking.
Is it worth it to travel ½ way around the world and gamble on catching the migration? My answer is an emphatic yes! There are certain times of the year where your odds of being smack dab in the middle of the migration are much better than others. We know those times.
To learn more about the migration’s movement throughout the year please read below:
January / February / March - During the period January through March the seemingly unending short grass plains of the southern Serengeti, and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (not the Ngorongoro Crater), are inhabited by enormous herds of wildebeest and zebra. Pregnant female wildebeest are attracted to the calcium and magnesium rich grass which is good for milk production. Calving occurs late January through mid March when over 80% of the female wildebeest give birth over a period of a few weeks. An estimated 400,000 wildebeest calves are born during this period. I really like this time of year for the migration. Not only is the area gorgeous with its many flat topped acacia tortilis trees, the concentrated herds around the Ndutu and Salei plains attract the attention of lion, good numbers of cheetah (not normally found around lion as they are competitors) and hyena. In the woodland, giraffe, elephant and buffalo are pretty easy to find. To give you an idea of how good an area this is professional filmmaker Hugo Van Lawick (one time husband to Jane Goodall) set up his base here back in the day.
As things dry up throughout March the herds might split into smaller groups focused on areas with the best conditions. In late March the long rains begin.
Where to stay During the months January through March the migration is best observed from a luxury mobile camp as there are no permanent high end properties in this area (unless you count Lake Masek Tented Camp which is decent). We have run into problems with flies (the common household variety) at several camps over the years. The simple, but personality packed, Ndutu Safari Lodge is a great value for those willing to compromise a bit on comfort. For those of you who must have luxury Mwiba Lodge is a great option this time of year. It is quite a ways from the wildebeest action but they offer private vehicles for all guests and a day trip from the lodge can be made to the Ndutu area to catch the migration.
April / May – From late March through early May Tanzania’s long rains are in full effect with regular downpours. It is considered off season for wildlife viewing and many lodges and camps close down. Grass can grow past the roof of your Land Rover and roads are often impassable. I remember one year standing outside my Land Rover which I had left in low gear. The wheels were slowly spinning but the car didn’t move an inch. The volcanic soil was as slippery as, and not unlike, chocolate cake frosting! With few spying eyes the wildebeest begin breeding at this time.
By May the depleted short grass plains are unable to sustain the endless herds. The migration sweeps west and north, to the Serengeti’s Western Corridor and almost to Lake Victoria, where there is long grass and more dependable water. Not all the wildebeest and zebra will follow the same route – whilst parts of the migration head to the Western Corridor and Grumeti before proceeding north, significant numbers simply head north via Seronera.
We do not advise traveling during April or May.
Where to stay During April you may have some luck catching the migration at Ndutu Safari Lodge. Kusini Camp would be a better bet. During May the centrally located Serengeti Serena Lodge offers good resident game however we won’t touch it – they are known to overbook leaving guests without rooms. There is also considerable crowding in this area. I once counted over 55 vehicles at the airstrip and drove past over 100 vehicles lined up on the road trying to view a single leopard about 250 yards off in the tall grass (driving off road is not allowed here). No thanks… not for me.
June – By early June things are drying up. The herds continue westwards, towards the Grumeti River. The riverine forest harbors plentiful buffalo and elephant, while there are many hippo and huge, hungry crocodiles in the river waiting for the wildebeest as they come to drink.
A few other things to consider for travel during June – some parks, such as Tarangire, will still be “recovering” from the rains with tall grass and limited wildlife viewing. The crater is fine at this time. Insect wise the western parts of the Serengeti and Grumeti area are home to some pretty serious tsetse flies… we refer to them as flying teeth. Fortunately if you find yourself in the midst of the wildebeest megaherd the flies tend to focus on the animals more than tourists! When the migration moves on – watch out!
Where to stay Singita Grumeti Reserve with the highly sought after luxury properties – Faru Faru River Lodge, Sasakwa Hill Lodge, and Sabora Plains Tented Camp – can be incredible for the migration during June. A big plus is the ability to partake in wildlife viewing walks, drive off road in open 4×4 vehicles, and do night drives in this private area. &Beyond’s Grumeti River Camp and Kirawira are also good options for viewing the migration at this time however you cannot drive off road, partake in night drives or walks from these properties.
July / August / September / October The wildebeest rapidly deplete the grass and water in the Western Corridor and Grumeti and start to move on. The migration may still be found in the Singita Grumeti Reserve during July but the odds become slimmer as you move through the month. In a typical year the migration can be spread over huge distances, with the first zebra herds arriving in the northern Serengeti by early July and big herds of wildebeest following later in the month. In a dry year, the first wildebeest could be near the Mara River (the only decent permanent water in the eco-system) by early July; in a wet year, by mid-August. If conditions are very good, i.e. there is plenty of grass and water, the herds will be spread out all the way from Seronera to the Mara River.
Typically from late July to mid October the wildebeest reside in the northern Serengeti and Masai Mara. The dry season is well under way and the herds congregate near water, especially the Mara River filled with hungry crocs.
In terms of timing I would shoot for late August through late September to maximize my changes of seeing a river crossing… of course crossings, and recrossings, occur before and after this time period. The areas that the wildebeest cover are vast and finding a group on the brink of crossing is not a given. Crossing are often elusive, rapid experiences.
Mid to late October dramatic thunder clouds herald the onset of the short rains and call the migration southward. Wherever rains fall the change is dramatic with thousands of animals arriving almost overnight.
Where to stay Most travelers are not aware that 80% of the Mara River is bordered by Tanzania on both sides. Only 20% of this river is located in Kenya. As Kenya’s Masai Mara now has over 3,700 beds we suggest clients stay in the northern Serengeti where there are only 11 safari lodges and camps. For all out luxury Singita’s Mara River Tented Camp is our favorite… Sayari Camp is a very close second with perfect tented rooms and a superb location only minutes away from a number of common wildebeest migration river crossing points. Bushtops has some really nice rooms but is an hour’s drive from the river. Nomad’s Lamai Camp is a bit closer. Migration Camp is worth considering (if you can’t get into Sayari or Singita) but the tsetse flies in the area can drive one insane! If you wish to save some monies a mobile camp in the Kogatende area works well. A bonus to staying at many of the lodges and camps in this area is that unlike other areas of the Serengeti and the Mara you are able to drive off road in open vehicles and walk with a professional guide.
If you wish to stay in the Mara there are a few gems that are really worth considering. Cottar’s 1920s is in a superb private location sandwiched between the Serengeti and Masai Mara and has several of Kenya’s top guides. Governor’s Camp, made famous by the BBC’s “Big Cat Diary” has very good resident game and you might even have a cheetah jump on top of your safari vehicle!
November / December As the rains continue during November the herds move south and east. Heading into December long lines of wildebeest can be seen moving back to the southern Serengeti and its short, rich grasses. The circle of life is complete as they begin to arrive late December into early January. Elsewhere in the Serengeti the grass grows fast and tall making wildlife viewing more difficult. We do not advise traveling at this time of year.
Where to stay You might catch the wildebeest migration from Klein’s Camp… or not. This area, which has some jaw dropping scenery, is home to some pretty feisty tsetse flies. Namiri Camp is also a good option although, with the wildebeest on the move this time of year, you may or may not see them.
Professional safari guide Richard Knocker summarizes the migration quite well:
Disregard any pretty map you may have been shown that has a nice flow of animals going around in an annual circle. It is driven entirely by standing water, grazing, and local weather conditions. The wildebeest want to be in the short grass plains of the southern Serengeti but the water and grazing cannot support them year around. This is where they choose to give birth to their young (usually February to March), with the rich grass to support them. Within a relatively short space of time, perhaps 4 – 6 weeks, several hundred thousand calves will be born and this is where we see much of the dramatic predator action. The Migration will then move off in search of sustenance in response to periods of dry weather, but they will leave this area as late as possible and come back as soon as they can. This means that every year is different, and, in fact, every week can be different.
The Migration is not a continuously forward motion. They go forward, backwards, and to the sides, they mill around, they split up, they join forces again, they walk in a line, the spread out, or they hang around together. You can never predict with certainty where they will be; the best you can do is suggest likely timing based on past experience. You can never guarantee the Migration one hundred percent.
Migration Location Updates (many people bookmark this page to view updates easily throughout the year)
April 2015: In early April there were finally good rains in the central Serengeti. Big herds have moved from Grumeti in the west, via Seronera and Moru towards Naabi. Herds that had gone north towards the Mara have been seen returning to the central Serengeti. With all the water and new grass the herds should settle down a bit. By mid April the wildebeest stretched all the way from the Ndutu triangle, Naabi, Gol Kopjes all the way down to Piyaya. Sadly the Western Corridor is once again very empty. There are some splinter herds up near Kogatende, in very small numbers. Late April saw the megaherd back around Ndutu and Lake Masek! Go figure! Herds could still be seen around Naabi and the Simba Kopjes on the Serengeti side. With all the rain (water and new grass) there is little incentive for the herds to move on. Going forward we expect more normal movement towards the Western Corridor and Grumeti during the month of May.
March 2015: As of early to mid March the wildebeest are scattered from the Maswa tree line in the south-west past Kusini to the Grumeti River / Western corridor. The herds have actually moved to the west of Singita Grumeti and are as far north as the Four Seasons. Everywhere there is water there are wildebeest. Things should remain unchanged until the first of the long rains. Interestingly there has been controlled burning towards the Mara River which has attacted a few herds north 3 months early! By late March the migration could be seen from the central Serengeti to Musabi Plains, Grumeti Reserves, Western Corridor, and the Ikoma area.
February 2015: As of early February calving continued in the southern Serengeti and Ngorongoro Conservation Area. As there has been little rain the herds are being sustained by permanent water such as the marshes around Ndutu. Good wild dog and lion were seen in this area making kills. By mid February the herds were spread thin – across the southern plains, deep in Maswa (along the Serengeti border) and even a few wildebeest sited near Lobo! All of this due to a lack of rains. By late February there were some scattered showers – but not around Ndutu. Calving continued with lion and wild dog playing a starring role!
January 2015: As of early January herds of wildebeest could still be seen heading south through the central Serengeti with the bulk of the megaherd already in the southern Serengeti. Due to widespread rains in December herds could be seen from Kusini in the west to Ndutu and Lake Masek all the way to the Olduvai Gorge! By mid January, despite dry conditions, massive herds could still be seen in the southern Serengeti and calving was well underway. By late January calving continued in the southern Serengeti and Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Among the many predators a pack of wild dog were even seen near Ndutu! By the end of January a good number of wildebeest were making their way south and west from Ndutu to the Maswa Plains. With so many new young the herds should not move too much and we expect great sitings to continue through February throughout the southern Serengeti, Ndutu, Olduvai, Kusini, and eastern Maswa areas.
December 2014: As of early December the herds were at the southern Serengeti border near Lake Ndutu – roughly a month early! Herds could also be seen near the Barafu Kopjes. Many of the females are heavily pregnant and we expect calving to start soon. By the end of December there had been good rain in the Ndutu area. The resultant lush grasses are a feast for the migratory herds which should remain in the area for several months.
November 2014: The 1st week of November the wildebeest herds could be seen just south of Ndutu northwards to the central Serengeti and Seronera. The bulk of the wildebeest were in the Moru area between Seronera and Ndutu. By the 3rd week of November many wildebeest had moved north from the Ndutu area with the bulk of the migration between Seronera in the central Serengeti and Moru area. As soon as rains fall in the Ndutu area we expect the herds to head back south.
October 2014: As of early October huge wildebeest crossings were still occuring on the Mara River in the North – close to 5,000 animals a day going from the Masai Mara in Kenya back into the Serengeti in Tanzania. Even with rains in the Mara / Kogantende area and many big herds hanging around there, a good number of wildebeest moved south with some seen as far south as Seronera (where there had been some storms). By late October massive herds could be seen from Seronera in the central Serengeti all the way to Ndutu in the South – wow!
September 2014: As September passed the river crossings continued in the northern Serengeti / Mara however most were in a southerly direction back into Tanzania as Kenya’s Mara has been heavily grazed leaving little grass behind. Many crossings occurred right in front of Olakira Camp and very close to Sayari Camp. Huge herds of wildebeest could be seen in the Lamai wedge, Kanyangaga Plains and Isurian Escapement. By late September rains in the Lamai wedge, Masai Mara, Kogatende and Bolagonja areas have kept the megaherd happy while there is a general movement towards the South. Some groups of mainly zebra have been seen heading further South as there have been rains in the central Serengeti. Within the Mara itself wildebeest numbers are dropping daily.
August 2014: Not much has changed… the migration is in the northern Serengeti / Kogatende area and in the Maasai Mara. Crossings are occurring both south to north and north to south. Rains have been falling in Kenya drawing the herds north… the 2nd week of August saw rains in the northern Serengeti so some of the herds might turn tail and head for the new grass. By late August a great part of the migration is in the Maasai Mara however huge herds can still be seen on the Lamai Plains and crossing between Tanzania and Kenya.
July 2014: As of early July the megaherd was mostly in the north of the Serengeti around Lamai and Kogatende. River crossings in July were occurring every day, especially in the eastern area of Kogatende. Guests staying at Sayari, Olakira, Kimondo, and Singita Mara River Tented are right in the thick of it! A great number of wildebeest can now also be found in the Maasai Mara in Kenya.
June 2014: As of early June there were still good concentrations of wildebeest between Seronera and into the Western Corridor. As there has been some rainfall most were expected to stick around for a while. Others however have moved northwards. By mid June wildebeest could be seen spread out from Ikoma, Lobo, and Nyamalumbwa all the way to Kogatende in the north. Some really fast ones had already crossed over into the Mara with big crossings at the Talek River. By late June the migration was still heavy around the center of the Serengeti with herds being seen from Seronera to the Western Corridor.
May 2014: This year’s long rainy season (mid March through May in northern Tanzania) saw little rain in the west and almost none in the central Serengeti. The result was a lack of suitable grasses, and when the wildebeest left the southern Serengeti at the end of March, the migration to the north and west, which usually takes about two and half to three months, took only one month! Early to mid May saw big herds of wildebeest in the central Serengeti (around Moru and Seronera) moving towards the Western Corridor. Kirawira and Singita Grumeti Reserve reported many wildebeest had already arrived with others heading to the Maswa Game Reserve which had been getting some rain. By late May the migration had fully reached the Western Corridor. They could be seen along the Grumeti Rver all the way to Kirawira and the Singita Grumeti Reserve. Due to the early arrival Serengeti Balloons started flights a week early allowing clients to view the herds gathering on the Musabi and Sabora Plains.
April 2014: April is the time of year the herds move slowly north towards the Serengeti’s western corridor. As of early April much of the migration could be seen inside the Serengeti on the Naabi plains and around Naabi gate – moving towards Seronera and the central Serengeti. The herds were also spread north and east into the Gol plains and the Gol kopjes. Reports from Ndutu are that there are very few wildebeest remaining. By mid April the wildebeest had moved quite a bit… right into the heart of the Serengeti and the Seronera Valley. Wildebeest may still be seen around Naabi. By the end of April many wildebeest are continuing to make their way up from the southern Serengeti plains to the central Serengeti with reports that some wildebeest have begun moving towards Ikoma and the Western Corridor of the Serengeti.
March 2014: The migration is amazing… you drive slowly through massive herds that part in front of you and then close ranks behind you. It is peaceful, majestic and breathtaking in its magnitude. When you stop your senses are overwhelmed by the low grunts, the chomping of grass and the smell of fresh dung. In early March the rains stopped and the wildebeest began to spread out. Herds could be seen from Olduvai in the east to the Maswa Game Reserve and Kusini in the west. They could also be found in the Ndutu woodlands. There are many newborns making life easy for predators. By mid March 2014 the migration had moved away from Ndutu for about a week however after some localized rains the entire migration moved back towards the plains and woodlands of Ndutu once again! As of late March 2014 the herds were spread out over the plains from Ndutu north to Naabi Hill within the Serengeti, northeast towards the Gol and Barafu kopjes all the way to Gol Mountains further east!
February 2014: Early February in Tanzania saw heavy rains fall from Seronera in the Serengeti to the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. The wildebeest herds covered the area from Kusini in the west to Ndutu and even the Gol Mountains in the east. By mid to late February the wildebeest moved a bit further south with big herds passing through the Ndutu woodlands. With the fresh green grass calving has started in earnest with an incredible number of babies being born each day.
January 2014: Good rains have been falling in the southern Serengeti and Ngorongoro Conservation area throughout the month and the short grass is green. The wildebeest arrived in the Ndutu area just in time for Christmas. Serengeti Balloon Safaris conducted their first balloon safari of the season from their Serengeti South location on December 20, 2013 and 90% of their flight was over vast herds of wildebeest and zebra. They also spotted lion, cheetah, hyena, buffalo and Grant’s gazelles. Serengeti Balloon Safaris will operate in this area until the end of March this year. As of late January the open grass plains around Ndutu and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area remain filled with wildebeest. More specifically the wildebeest are spread out from the Maswa Game Reserve southwest of the Serengeti, through Kusini to Naabi Hill within the southern Serengeti, to the Ndutu and Ngorongoro Conservation Area just outside the southern boundary of the park. The really big herds have been hanging out in the Kusini / Ndutu areas. Only a few newborn calves were seen near the end of January. February should see many more. If you are lucky enough to be staying at one of the luxury mobile tented camps in the area you are experiencing one of the coolest things on the planet – literally thousands of wildebeest milling around your tent, day and night, mooing incessantly.